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African Elephant Publications

Wildlife Tracking Center, Disney's Animal Kingdom

Peer-reviewed Scientific Publications

J. Soltis, R.P. Wilson, I. Douglas-Hamilton, F. Vollrath, L.E. King, and A. Savage A (in press). Accelerometers in collars identify behavioral states in captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana). Endangered Species Research.

J. Soltis (in press). Emotional communication in African elephants (Loxodonta africana). In Evolution of Emotional Communication: from Sounds in Nonhuman Mammals to Speech and Music in Man. E. Altenmüller, S. Schmidt, and E. Zimmerman, editors. Oxford University Press.

J. Soltis, T. E. Blowers, A. Savage. 2011. Measuring positive and negative affect in the voiced sounds of African elephants (Loxodonta africana). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 129: 1059-1066.

L.E. King, J. Soltis, I. Douglas-Hamilton, A. Savage,
F. Vollrath. 2010. Bee threat elicits alarm call in African elephants. PLoS ONE, 5: e10346. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010346.
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K.A. Leighty, J. Soltis, A. Savage. 2010. GPS assessment of the use of exhibit space and resources by African elephants (Loxodonta africana). Zoo Biology, 29: 192-209.

Soltis, J. 2010. Vocal communication in African elephants (Loxodonta africana). 2010. Zoo Biology, 29: 210-220.

Soltis, J., Leighty, K.A., Wesolek, C.M., Savage, A. 2009. The expression of affect in African elephant (Loxodonta africana) rumble vocalizations. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 123:222-225.

Wesolek, C.M., Soltis, J., Leighty, K.A., and Savage, A. 2009. Infant African elephant vocalizations vary according to social interactions with adult females. Bioacoustics, 18: 227-239.

Leighty, K.A., Soltis, J., Wesolek, C.M., Savage, A., Mellen, J., Lehnhardt, J. 2009. GPS determination of walking rates in captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana). Zoo Biology, 28: 16-28.

Leighty, K.A., Soltis, J., Wesolek, C.M., and Savage, A. 2008. Rumble vocalizations mediate interpartner distance in African elephants (Loxodonta africana). Animal Behaviour, 76: 1601-1608.

Leighty, K.A., Soltis, K.M., and Savage, A. 2008. Antiphonal exchanges in African elephants (Loxodonta africana): collective response to a shared stimulus, social facilitation, or true communicative event? Behaviour, 145: 297-312.

Clemins, P.J., and Johnson, M.T. 2006. Generalized perceptual linear prediction features for animal vocalization analysis. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 120: 527-534.

Soltis, J., Leong, K., and Savage, A. 2005. African elephant vocal communication I: antiphonal calling behaviour among affiliated females. Animal Behaviour, 70: 579-587.

Soltis, J., Leong, K., and Savage, A. 2005. African elephant vocal communication II: rumble variation reflects individual identity and emotional state of callers. Animal Behaviour, 70: 589-599.

Leong, K.M., Burks, K.D., Rizcalla, C.E., and Savage, A. 2005. Effects of reproductive and social context on vocal communication in captive female African elephants (Loxodonta africana). Zoo Biology, 24: 331–347

Clemins, P.J., Johnson, M.T., Leong, K.M., and Savage, A. 2005. Automatic classification and speaker identification of African elephant (Loxodonta africana) vocalizations. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 117: 956-963.

Leong K.M., Ortolani A., Burks K.D., Mellen J.D., and Savage A. 2003. Quantifying acoustic and temporal characteristics of vocalizations for a group of captive African elephants, Loxodonta africana. Bioacoustics, 13: 213-231.

Leong K.M., Ortolani A., Graham L.H., and Savage A. 2003. The use of low-frequency vocalizations in African elephant (Loxodonta africana) reproductive strategies. Hormones and Behavior, 43: 433-443.

To learn more about Elephant Communication please visit the links below:

Learn more about the history of elephant communication research at Disney's Animal Kingdom

Recording Elephant Vocalizations and Behavior
Check out our elephant collar audio-recording system

Elephant Exercise
Using GPS to evaluate how elephants utilize their exhibit space

African elephant vocalizations and behavior

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Something to Buzz About: Elephants and Bees
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Updated: July 26, 2012